Pain killers, anti-inflammatory medication, glucosamine.
Ice and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication can reduce swelling and pain.
Steroids, hyaluronic acid.
Change from high impact (running, jumping) to low impact (walking, cycling, swimming).
The knee is loaded with three to six times body weight (walking vs running).
Knee support, brace.
Sticks, crutches, off-loader brace.
Muscle strengthening exercises can control symptoms of pain and instability.
Optimise core strength, back, hip and foot problems.
Keyhole surgery, usually as a day case procedure. To treat meniscal tears, cartilage flaps and irregularity, impingement, plica syndrome and cartilage defects with microfracture. Loose pieces of bone or cartilage can be removed as well as scar tissue from previous surgery such as joint replacements.
To release a tight outside knee cap tissues allowing the knee cap to track better.
Lateral patella facetectomy
Removing a prominent lip of overhanging bone from the outside of the knee cap caused by arthritis.
Changing the leg alignment to off-load a painful arthritic knee compartment.
Unicompartmental knee replacement
Partial replacement treating arthritis in one (usually inner) knee compartment.
Total knee replacement
Replacing 2 or 3 knee compartments.
Revision knee replacement
Existing knee prostheses can get infected, get loose or wear out. Revision means exchanging the existing failing one to a new prosthesis.