Non-operative
Medication
Pain killers, anti-inflammatory medication, glucosamine.
Anti-inflammatory measures
Ice and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication can reduce swelling and pain.
Injection
Steroids, hyaluronic acid.
Activity modification
Change from high impact (running, jumping) to low impact (walking, cycling, swimming).
Weight loss
The knee is loaded with three to six times body weight (walking vs running).
Support
Knee support, brace.
Off-loading
Sticks, crutches, off-loader brace.
Physiotherapy
Muscle strengthening exercises can control symptoms of pain and instability.
Kinetic chain
Optimise core strength, back, hip and foot problems.
Intermediate surgery
Arthroscopy
Keyhole surgery, usually as a day case procedure. To treat meniscal tears, cartilage flaps and irregularity, impingement, plica syndrome and cartilage defects with microfracture. Loose pieces of bone or cartilage can be removed as well as scar tissue from previous surgery such as joint replacements.
Lateral release
To release a tight outside knee cap tissues allowing the knee cap to track better.
Lateral patella facetectomy
Removing a prominent lip of overhanging bone from the outside of the knee cap caused by arthritis.
Major surgery
Osteotomy
Changing the leg alignment to off-load a painful arthritic knee compartment.
Unicompartmental knee replacement
Partial replacement treating arthritis in one (usually inner) knee compartment.
Total knee replacement
Replacing 2 or 3 knee compartments.
Revision knee replacement
Existing knee prostheses can get infected, get loose or wear out. Revision means exchanging the existing failing one to a new prosthesis.